门德尔松的主要成就_门德尔松创立

小牛学院 2024-07-22 09:51 1

门德尔松的生平

雅科布·路德维希·费利克斯·门德尔松·巴托尔迪(德文:Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy,1809年2月3日-1847年11月4日),通称费利克斯·门德尔松,德国犹太裔作曲家,生于德国汉堡的一个富裕家庭,逝于莱比锡。门德尔松为德国浪漫乐派代表性的人物之一。他的《〈仲夏夜之梦〉序曲》为浪漫主义作曲家描绘神话仙境提供了先例。他独创了“无言歌”的钢琴曲体裁,对于标题音乐和钢琴艺术的发展都有着巨大的启示价值。他的审美趣味和创作天才都深刻的影响了后来的浪漫主义音乐。

门德尔松的主要成就_门德尔松创立门德尔松的主要成就_门德尔松创立


门德尔松的主要成就_门德尔松创立


)《b小调无词歌》

无词歌,也叫无言歌,是一种宛如歌曲的钢琴小曲,其中包含一个歌曲性质的旋律和相应的伴奏部分,无词歌为门德尔松首创,它没有歌词,但门德尔松认为他的无词歌所表过的思想内容,比歌词要明确,他曾在一封信中写到:“如果你问我,当我写作无词歌时有什么想法,我说:就象无词所表现的那样,虽然写作革几首无词歌时,在我心中有明确的词句,我还是不想把他告诉任何人,因为文字对每个人的意义并不相同,只有无词歌对每个人说出同样的话,鸣起同样的感觉。”

门德尔松常常把无词歌当成信件寄给家人,来代替文字,有一次他把《b小调无词歌》的初稿寄给姐姐方尼说:“当我收到你的一半怀念,一半愉快的来信时,我的心情是这样的。”——音乐通过奔放的旋律和活跃的节奏,表现出一种兴奋和激动的情绪。

音乐有二部分组成,按一、二、一、二、一的次序交替组成,一段从小调转到大调,表现出得到安慰而明朗的心情。

门德尔松是哪国人,他的代表作是什么?亨德尔是哪国人,他的代表作是什么?

阿希尔·克劳德·德彪西,法国人,是十九世纪末、二十世纪初欧洲音乐界颇具影响的作曲家、革新家,同时也是近代“印象主义”音乐的鼻祖,对各国的音乐产生了深远的影响。德彪西的代表作品有管弦乐《大海》、《牧神午后前奏曲》,钢琴曲《前奏曲》和《练习曲》,而他的创作峰则是歌剧《佩利亚斯与梅丽桑德》。次世界大战期间,他写过一些对遭受苦难的寄予同情的作品,创作风格也有所改变。此时他已患癌症,于18年德国进攻巴黎时。

伊戈尔·费奥多罗维奇·斯特拉文斯基(俄语:Игорь Фёдорович Стравинский,1882年6月17日-1971年4月6日),又译斯特拉温斯基,俄国作曲家,20世纪现代音乐的传奇人物,革新过三个不同的音乐流派:原始主义、新古典主义以及序列主义。被人们誉为是音乐界中的。

主要作品《烟火》(Fireworks,1909)

《火鸟》(The Firebird,10)

《彼得鲁什卡》(Petrushka,11)

《夜莺之歌》(Le Chant du Rossignol,17)

《春之祭》(The Rite of Spring,13)

《普尔钦奈拉》(Pulcinella,1920)

《婚礼》(Les Noces,1923)

《士兵的故事》(The Soldier's Tale,18)

《拉格泰姆》(Ragtime,1933)

《俄狄普斯王》(Oedipus Rex,1927)

《诗篇交响曲》(Symphony of Psalms,1930)

《乌木协奏曲》(Ebony Concerto,1945)

《浪子历程》(The Rake's Progress,1951)

《竞赛》(Agon,1957)→采以十二音列创作

《洪水》(The Flood,1961-1962)

《安魂圣歌》(Requiem Canticles,1965-1966)

门德尔松家族介绍 门德尔松故事分享

门德尔松家族介绍 门德尔松故事分享

门德尔松家族

作为德国最出名的一位音乐家,门德尔松在音乐上做出来突出的成就,并且门德尔松在自己短暂的一生当中也曾经为我们留下来很多作品,就单单从这些作品而言,门德尔松的对于音乐界的贡献就是不可估量的。

门德尔松画像

门德尔松能有这样的成就,一方面和他的努力是分不开的,另一方面,门德尔松家族的也是门德尔松能取得这样成就的重要原因。门德尔松的家族在当时是非常有地位的。首先门德尔松是一名哲学家,摩西门德尔松在德国是最重要的思想家,他对于德国思想界的贡献是非常重要的。

其次门德尔松的父亲是门德尔松家族另外一位有作为的人。他是德国非常出名的一位银行家,在实业家的道路上,亚伯拉罕成为了当时德国首屈一指的亿万大亨,这样的家族,让门德尔松在自己的音乐道路上随心所欲的研究提供了优良的环境。正是这样的环境,才让门德尔松的研究之路一帆风顺。

因为父亲财力的影响,自幼门德尔松就接受了非常系统的教育,而教师也都是当时的专家,门德尔松音乐上最重要的启蒙人是门德尔松家族的女主人——她的母亲,在母亲的指导之下,门德尔松和姐姐都成为了当时非常影响力的钢琴家,门德尔松在他的家族的支撑下,还进行了一系列的演出兼旅行的生活,在这个途中的见闻成为了他创作的重要思想来源,让他创作出来了大量的作品。

门德尔松故事

对于门德尔松故事,大家或许都是有点陌生的。门德尔松出生在一个典型的犹太家庭,家境优渥,祖父是当时非常出名的哲学家,而父亲是一个银行家。这样的家庭环境让门德尔松的童年生活非常的轻松。门德尔松受到母亲的影响比较大,他自幼和母亲学习钢琴,他也是当时公认的音乐神童。

门德尔松故事是这样的。门德尔松在自己九岁的时候就开始了公开演奏,十几岁就组织了自己的私人乐队,可以看出他的音乐才能是非常的突出的。同时门德尔松也投身于巴赫作品的宣传当中,因为在柏林指挥巴赫的《马太受难曲》,在当时的音乐界引起了很大的轰动。

门德尔松的故事离不开交响乐的创作,在他应邀参观了英国的爱乐乐队,并且在苏格兰的岛屿上度之后,他写出了的苏格兰交响乐,来表达在英国访问期间它的所观所感,之后他开始酝酿另外一部大作意大利交响曲,这部交响乐是在他参观意大利之后才写出来的,并且就部曲子是在德国完成的。

1842年,门德尔松和舒曼等人一起创办了一个音乐学院,就在后世非常出名的莱比锡音乐学院,之后门德尔松还在伯明翰音乐节上再次出现,指挥了以利亚,也获得了,而第二年,他的姐姐,这对他的打击非常大,此时他自己的身体情况也逐渐糟糕起来,半年后,自己也不敌重病,门德尔松的故事就这样结束了。

门德尔松妹妹

在19世纪的欧洲音乐史上,好像很少有突出的女性作曲家的出现,也很少有人知道门德尔松妹妹范尼·门德尔松。在西方的钢琴艺术史上似乎经将女性边缘化了,范尼·门德尔松也很少在公开场合发表自己的音乐见解。

急求门德尔松的英文~

Early Works

The young Mendelssohn was greatly influenced in his childhood by the music of Bach, Beoven and Mozart and traces of these can all be seen in the twelve early string symphonies, mainly written for performance in the Mendelssohn household and not published or publicly performed until long after his death. He wrote these from 1821 to 1823, when he was between the ages of 12 and 14 years old.

His astounding capacities are especially raled in a clutch of works of his early maturity: Sonata for Clarinet and Piano in E-flat major (1824), the String Octet (1825), the Overture A Midsummer Night's Dream (1826) (which in its finished form owes much to the influence of Adolf Bernhard Marx, at the time a close friend of Mendelssohn), and the String Quartet in A minor (listed as no. 2 but written before no. 1) of 1827. These show an intuitive grasp of form, harmony, counterpoint, colour and the comitional technique of Beoven, which justify claims frequently made that Mendelssohn's precocity exceeded n that of Mozart in its inlectual grasp.[36]

Symphonies

The numbering of his mature symphonies is approximay in order of publishing, rather than of comition. The order of comition is: 1, 5, 4, 2, 3. (Because he worked on it for over a decade, the placement of No. 3 in this sequence is problematic; he started sketches for it soon after the No. 5, but completed it following both Nos. 5 and 4.)

The Symphony No. 1 in C minor for full-scale orchestra was written in 1824, when Mendelssohn was aged 15. This work is experimental, showing the influence of Bach, Beoven and Mozart. Mendelssohn conducted this symphony on his first visit to London in 1829 with the orchestra of the Royal Philharmonic Society. For the third movement he substituted an orchestration of the Scherzo from his Octet. In this form the piece was an outstanding success and laid the foundations of his British reputation.

During 1829 and 1830 Mendelssohn wrote his Symphony No. 5, known as the Reformation. It celebrated the 300th anniversary of the Lutheran Church. Mendelssohn remained dissatisfied with the work and did not allow publication of the score.

The Scottish Symphony (Symphony No. 3 in A minor), was written and revised intermittently between 1830 and 1842. This piece evokes Scotland's atmosphere in the os of Romantici, but does not employ any identified Scottish folk melodies. Mendelssohn published the score of the symphony in 1842 in an arrangement for piano duet, and as a full orchestral score in 1843.

Mendelssohn's trels in Italy inspired him to write the Symphony No. 4 in A major, known as the Italian. Mendelssohn conducted the premiere in 1833, but he did not allow this score to be published during his lifetime as he continually sought to rewrite it.

In 1840 Mendelssohn wrote the choral Symphony No. 2 in B-flat major, entitled Lobgesang (Hymn of Praise), and this score was published in 1841.

Other orchestral music

Mendelssohn wrote the concert overture The Hebrides (Fingal's Ce) in 1830, inspired by visits he made to Scotland around the end of the 1820s. He visited the ce, on the Hebridean isle of Staffa, as part of his Grand Tour of Europe, and was so impressed that he scribbled the opening theme of the overture on the spot, including it in a letter he wrote home the same ning.

Throughout his career he wrote a number of other concert overtures. Those most frequently played today include Ruy Blas (commissioned for a charity performance of Victor Hugo's drama, which Mendelssohn hated), Meerestille und Glückliche Fahrt (Calm Sea and Prosperous Voyage, inspired by a pair of poems by Goe), and The Fair Melusine.

The incidental music to A Midsummer Night's Dream (Op. 61), including the well-known Wedding March, was written in 1843, sn years after the overture.

Opera

Mendelssohn wrote some Singspiels for family performance in his youth. His opera Die beiden Neffen was rehearsed for him on his fifth birthday.[37] In 1827 he wrote a more sophisticated work, Die Hochzeit des Camacho, based on an episode in Don Quixote, for public consumption. It was produced in Berlin in 1827. Mendelssohn left the theatre before the conclusion of the first performance, and subsequent performances were cancelled.

Although he nr abandoned the idea of coming a full opera, and considered many subjects —including that of the Nibelung later adapted by Wagner— he nr wrote more than a few pages of sketches for any project. In his last years the mar Benjamin Lumley tried to contract him to write an opera on The Tempest on a libretto by Eugène Scribe, and n announced it as forthcoming in the year of Mendelssohn's death. The libretto was ntually set by Fromental Halévy. At his death Mendelssohn left some sketches for an opera on the story of Lorelei.

Concertos

Mendelssohn's Violin Concerto in E minor, Op. 64 (1844), written for Ferdinand Did, has become one of the most popular of all of Mendelssohn's comitions. Did, who had worked closely with Mendelssohn during the piece's preparation, ge the premiere of the concerto on his Guarneri violin.

Mendelssohn also wrote two piano concertos, a less well known, early, violin concerto (D minor), two concertos for two pianos and orchestra and a double concerto for piano and violin. In addition, there are sral works for soloist and orchestra in one movement. Those for piano are the Rondo Brillante, Op. 29, of 1834; the Capriccio Brillante, Op. 22, of 1832; and the Serenade and Allegro Giocoso Op. 43, of 1838. Opp. 113 and 114 are Konzertstücke (concerto movements, originally for clarinet, basset horn and piano, that were orchestrated and performed in that form in Mendelssohn's lifetime.)

Chamber music

Mendelssohn's mature output contains many chamber works, many of which display an emotional intensity that some people think his larger works lack. In particular his String Quartet No. 6, his last string quartet and major work, written following the death of his sister Fanny, is both powerful and eloquent. Other works include two string quintets, sonatas for the clarinet, cello, viola and violin, two piano trios and three piano quartets. For the Piano Trio No. 1 in D minor, Mendelssohn unusually took the a of a fellow-comer, (Ferdinand Hiller) and rewrote the piano part in a more romantic, 'Schumannesque' style, considerably heightening its effect.

Choral works

The two large biblical oratorios, St Paul in 1836 and Elijah in 1846, are greatly influenced by Bach. From the unfinished oratorio, Christus, the chorus "There Shall a Star Come out of Jacob" (which toger with the preceding recitative and male trio comprises all of the existing material from that work) is sometimes performed.

Strikingly different is the more overtly 'romantic' Die erste Walpurgisnacht (The First Walpurgis Night), a setting for chorus and orchestra of a ballad by Goe describing pagan rituals of the Druids in the Harz mountains in the early days of Christianity. This remarkable score has been seen by the scholar Heinz-Klaus Metzger as a "Jewish protest against the domination of Christianity".

Mendelssohn also wrote many aller-scale sacred works for unaccompanied choir and for choir with organ. Some were written, and most he been translated into English, and remain highly popular. Perhaps the most famous is Hear My Prayer, with its second half containing 'O for the Wings of a Dove', which became extremely popular as a separate . The piece is written for full choir, organ, and a treble or soprano soloist who has many challenging and extended solo passages. As such, it is a particular fourite for choirboys in churches and cathedrals, and has perhaps been recorded more than any other treble solo.

The hymn tune Mendelssohn—an adaptation by William Hayman Cummings of a melody from Mendelssohn's cantata Festgesang—is the standard tune for Charles Wesley's popular hymn Hark! The Herald Angels Sing. This extract from an originally secular 1840s comition, which Mendelssohn felt unsuited to sacred music, is thus ubiquitous at Christmas.

Songs

Mendelssohn wrote many songs, both for solo vo and for duet, with piano. Many of these are , or slightly modified, strophic settings. Such songs as Auf Flügeln des Gesanges ("On Wings of Song") became popular.

A number of songs written by Mendelssohn's sister Fanny originally appeared under her brother's name; this was partly due to the prejud of the family, and partly to her own diffidence.

Piano

Mendelssohn's Lieder ohne Worte (Songs without Words), eight cycles each containing six lyric pieces (2 published thumously), remain his most famous solo piano comitions. They became standard parlour recital s, and their overwhelming popularity has caused many critics to under-rate their musical value. Other comers who were inspired to produce similar pieces of their own included Charles-Valentin Alkan (the five sets of Chants, each ending with a barcarolle), Anton Rubinstein, Ignaz Moscheles and Eard Grieg.

Other notable piano pieces by Mendelssohn include his Variations sérieuses, Op. 54 (1841), the Sn Characteristic Pieces, Op. 7 (1827), the Rondo Capriccioso and the set of six Preludes and Fugues, Op. 35 (written between 1832 and 1837).

Organ

Mendelssohn played the organ and comed for it from the age of 11 to his death. His primary organ works are the Three Preludes and Fugues, Op. 37 (1837), and the Six Sonatas, Op. 65 (1845).

简述门德尔松的作品与历史贡献

主要作品

管弦乐

(一)交响曲

1.管弦乐队演奏的交响曲:

MWV.N.8 D大调交响曲(为弦乐队而作的《D大调第八交响曲》的管弦乐队版本,由门德尔松本人亲自改编),完成于1822年;

MWV.N.13 C小调交响曲(首演时称C小调第十三交响曲),Op.11,完成于1824年;

MWV.A.18 降B大调第二(颂赞歌)交响曲(亦交响康塔塔),Op.52,完成于1840年;

MWV.N.18 A小调第三(苏格兰)交响曲,Op.56,完成于1842年;

MWV.N.16 A大调第四(意大利)交响曲,Op.90,完成于1833年;门德尔松

MWV.N.15 D小调第五(宗教改革)交响曲,Op.107,完成于1830年,出版于1868年;

MWV.N.17 降B大调交响曲(未完成,仅存片段),写于1839年;

MWV.N.19 C大调交响曲(未完成,仅存片段),写于1845年。

2.弦乐队演奏的交响曲(早期的作品,完成 于1821-1823年):

MWV.N.1 C大调交响曲,3个乐章,1821;

MWV.N.2 D大调第二交响曲,3个乐章,1821;

MWV.N.3 E小调第三交响曲,3个乐章,1821;

MWV.N.4 C小调第四交响曲,3个乐章,1821;

MWV.N.5 降B大调第五交响曲,3个乐章,1821;

MWV.N.6 降E大调第六交响曲,3个乐章,1821;

MWV.N.7 D小调第七交响曲,4个乐章,1821;

MWV.N.8 D大调第八交响曲,4个乐章,1822;

MWV.N.9 C大调第九交响曲,4个乐章,1823;

MWV.N.10 B小调第十交响曲,1个乐章,1823;

MWV.N.11 F大调第十一交响曲,5个乐章,1823;

MWV.N.12 G小调第十二交响曲,3个乐章,1823;

MWV.N.14 C小调交响乐章,1个乐章,1823。

3.玩具交响曲(Kindersnie,全部遗失)

MWV.P.4 玩具交响曲,写于1828年;

MWV.P.6 玩具交响曲,写作时间不明;

MWV.P.8 玩具交响曲,写作时间不明。

(二)序曲

MWV.P.3 E大调仲夏夜之梦序曲,Op.21(1826);

MWV.P.1 C大调管乐序曲,Op.24(1824);

MWV.P.7 B小调赫布里底群岛序曲,Op.26(1830,又名《芬格尔洞》序曲);

MWV.P.5 D大调平静的大海和幸福的航行序曲,Op.27(1828);

MWV.P.12 F大调美丽的梅露西娜序曲,Op.32(1833);

MWV.P.15 C小调吕伊·布拉斯序曲,Op.95(1839);

MWV.P.2 C大调小号序曲,Op.101(1826)。

(三)其它管弦乐作品

MWV.P.14 A小调葬礼进行曲,Op.103(1836);

MWV.P.16 D大调进行曲,Op.108(1841);

MWV.P.17 降E大调进行曲,写作时间不明;

MWV.P.18 降E大调进行曲,写作时间不明。

(四)钢琴协奏曲

MWV.O.2 A小调钢琴协奏曲(一架钢琴与弦乐队),完成于1822年;

MWV.O.5 E大调钢琴协奏曲(两架钢琴与管弦乐队),完成于1823年;

MWV.O.6 降A大调钢琴协奏曲(两架钢琴与管弦乐队),完成于1824年;

以下为一架钢琴与管弦乐队的协奏曲:

MWV.O.7 G小调钢琴协奏曲,Op.25,完成于1831年;

MWV.O.11 D小调第二钢琴协奏曲,Op.40,完成于1837年;

MWV.O.13 E小调第三钢琴协奏曲,写于1842至1844年;

注:门德尔松本人并未完成E小调第三钢琴协奏曲,它有部分管弦乐谱(其中只有乐章的前11小节是完整的,此外还有56小节不完整的管弦乐谱)和钢琴谱草稿,并未由作曲家本人亲自配器完成。、二乐章(分别为E小调、A小调)的钢琴谱草稿由门德尔松本人完成,第三乐章(E大调)的钢琴谱草稿未完成,20小节。由意大利钢琴家普罗希达(Roberto Prosseda)于2006年在牛津的图书馆中发现这两份手稿,并求助于研究门德尔松作品的权威学者布法里尼,将之补写完成,并于2007年进行全球首演,后又与指挥里卡多·夏伊(Ricardo Chailly)和莱比锡布商大厦管弦乐团合作录制了一张唱片。

(五)小提琴协奏曲:

MWV.O.3 D小调小提琴协奏曲(一把小提琴与弦乐队),完成于1822年;

MWV.O.14 E小调小提琴协奏曲(一把小提琴与管弦乐队),Op.64,完成于1844年;

(六)二重协奏曲:

MWV.O.4 D小调钢琴与小提琴协奏曲(钢琴、小提琴与弦乐队),完成于1823年。

(七)大提琴协奏曲:门德尔松曾于1844年之后写过一首大提琴协奏曲,不过此曲手稿后来遗失。

(八)钢琴与乐队作品(协奏曲除外):

MWV.O.1 D小调宣叙调曲(钢琴与弦乐队),完成于1820年;

MWV.O.8 B小调辉煌随想曲,Op.22,完成于1832年;

MWV.O.9 C小调辉煌变奏曲(Duo concertant en variations brillantes,两架钢琴与乐队),Woo.25,完成于1833年。

MWV.O.10 降E大调辉煌回旋曲,Op.29,完成于1834年;

MWV.O.12 B小调小夜曲与欢快的快板,Op.43,完成于1838年。

其他作品

1.合唱作品:

清唱剧有:《圣保罗》(1834-1836)、《以利亚》(1846-1847)、《》(未完成,1847);

交响康塔塔《颂赞歌》(1840,有人称之为第二交响曲);九首诗篇歌;九首歌。

2.戏剧音乐:

歌剧有:《卡马秋的婚礼》(1825)、《儿子与陌路人》(1829)、《洛雷利》(未完成,1847);戏剧配乐有《安提戈涅》 (1841)、《个瓦尔普吉斯之夜》(1831,1842)、《仲夏夜之梦》(1843)、《阿塔利亚》(1843-1845)、《俄狄浦斯在科洛纳斯》(1845)。

3.室内乐:

六首弦乐四重奏;三首钢琴四重奏(1822-1825);两首弦乐五重奏(1831,1845);弦乐六重奏(1824);弦乐八重奏 (1825);两首三重奏(D小调,1839;C小调,1845);小提琴奏鸣曲,两首大提琴奏鸣曲(1838、1843)。

4.钢琴:《升F小调随想曲》(1825);《E小调回旋随想曲》;六首前奏与赋格(1832-1837);六集《无词歌》。

5.管风琴:三首前奏曲与赋格(1833-1837);六首奏鸣曲(1839-1844)。

6.歌曲与主调合唱曲:十套钢琴伴奏的歌曲;十一套主调合唱曲。

主要成就

在创作上,首创了高雅纯净、形式短小的钢琴曲《无词歌》(Songs Without Words),创作了的《仲夏夜之梦《无词歌》》、《苏格兰交响曲》和《意大利交响曲》,把浪漫主义与古典主义的特点交织在一起,音乐既含有古典主义的逻辑性,又带有浪漫主义的幻想性;他创作的《e小调小提琴协奏曲》具有华丽的技巧与甜美的旋律,是举世公认的。

在音乐的启蒙运动上,门德尔松使被人们遗忘了几乎一百多年的作品——巴赫的《马太受难乐》重放光芒,这是音乐史上最重大的之一,从此人们开始重新认识巴赫。

在音乐教育上,创办了德国所音乐学院——莱比锡音乐学院,为后来德国音乐教育的发展打下了坚实的基础。

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